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1.1.            Basic Consideration


Can you communicate to one another without language? “Language is system communication in speech and writing used by people of a particular country” Victorian (2008, p. 247). By using a language, people can communicate with others and form a larger social group to share their feelings and emotions. This can take place by verbal and non-verbal language. Lado (1964) also states: “Language is intimately tied with man’s feelings and activities.”


There are various languages which can be found in the world such as Indonesian, Arabic, Spanish, English, and so on. English is an international language which seems the most commonly used to communicate with the people among the different countries. English is an important subject to be learnt since it is being the common language of the world through which people can communicate, express their own thoughts, ideas, needs and co – operate with the people all over the world.


In the way of learning English, one point that the learners must do is learning the Grammar for there would be impossible to study English effectively without knowing the Grammar. Moreover, Grammar is a set of rules that must be followed. The Free Dictionary defines, “Grammar is the system of rules implicit in a language, viewed as a mechanism for generating all sentence possible in that language.” ( In the Grammar, the learners will learn many things such as how to compose sentences, how to master tenses, including phrasal verbs and so on.


Dictionary of English Phrasal Verbs clarifies, “Phrasal verb is idiomatic expressions, combining verbs and prepositions to make new verbs whose meaning is often not obvious from the dictionary definitions of the individual words. They are widely used in both written and spoken English, and new ones are formed all the time as they are a flexible way of creating new terms.”    (


Some phrasal verbs are idioms. Surawan (2010, p. 40) says that an idiom is usually formed by two or more words. The series of this word has one unit of a different meaning from each of its constituent. It does not mean that all phrasal verbs are idiomatic meanings. Some phrasal verbs have a literal or an exact meaning. E.g. stand up, sit down the meaning of these phrasal verbs are exactly as the words say. Further, it needs to be understood that idioms in English are not necessarily idioms in Indonesian.


Baehaqi, (2009, p. 231) explains, “Phrasal verbs are verb idioms which consist of: prepositional verbs (verb + preposition), phrasal verbs (verb + adverb), and phrasal – prepositional verbs (verb + adverb + preposition).” Phrasal verbs have structures and they can be formed and analyzed its use in a sentence. Baehaqi (2009) has a theory of forming and analyzing it.


For example:


·         Prepositional verb (verb + preposition)                             run into: to meet




Use in a sentence                                                                     I run into an old friend.


Structure of phrasal verb                                                         run       into


                                                                                                Verb     preposition


·         Phrasal Verb (verb + adverb)                                 think over: to consider




Use in a sentence                                                         she needs some time to think it over  






Structure of phrasal verb                                             think                over


                                                                                    Verb                 adverb


·         Phrasal – Prepositional Verb (Verb + adverb + preposition)          come up against: to find




Use in a sentence                                 they come up against many difficulties                      


Structure of phrasal verb                     come                up                    against


                                                            Verb                 adverb             preposition


 Baehaqi (2009) also says “Phrasal verbs are more used in informal English rather than in formal English. The definition or the meaning of phrasal verbs can be done by another expression which is used in formal English.” It means that Formal English is used in serious texts and situations such as in official documents, new reports or books. Informal English is used in everyday conversations. E.g. in Auxiliary Verb Usage: Formal always uses the full form of an auxiliary: Have you finished your work? In informal sometimes, the auxiliary verb is dropped in informal speech: Finished your work? This is often grammatically incorrect, but is certainly common in everyday usage. Phrasal verbs are also usually used informally in everyday speech such as to put off (phrasal verb) rather than to postpone.


The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English (2009) says that Analysis is detailed examination of the elements or structure of something, typically as a basis for discussion or interpretation. In other words, it is the process of separating something into its constituent elements. ( Phrasal verbs can be analyzed.


In the line with analyzing English phrasal verbs, sometimes phrasal verbs are really connected to the lyric. “Lyrics are words of a song.” Mifflin (1981). Lyric is having the form and general effect of a song, especially to express the writer’s feelings. In a lyric, the composers compose it into the form of a sentence which consists of words, clauses or phrases. In a few words, every lyric of a song seems containing phrasal verbs.


Specifically, there are many phrasal verbs which can be found in the song lyrics of Charice Pempengco, the great young singer from Philippine. She is a talented singer. Because of her talent, she won a 42nd Box – Office Entertainment Awards Female Concert Performer of the year in 2011. She was also invited to guest on Oprah Winfrey, an American Talk Show Host and ever she had duets with international divas and singers such as Celine Dion, Bruno Mars, Andrea Boceli and others.


Hence, the researcher is not only interested in analyzing English phrasal verbs in the lyrics of Charice Pempengco’s songs but loves Charice Pempengco’s great voice and songs as well.






1.2.            Reason For Choosing the Topic


The researcher chooses this topic because of some reasons:


1.      From the first semester up to now, the researcher seldom heard the students using English Phrasal Verbs in their casual speech.


2.      The researcher wants to enrich the vocabulary of English especially in Phrasal verbs used in the lyrics of Charice Pempengco’s songs.


3.      Phrasal verbs can be either separable and inseparable or transitive and intransitive.


4.      Phrasal verbs can mostly be found in English song lyrics specifically in the lyrics of Charice Pempengco’s songs.




1.3.            Research Focus


This research will be focused on English phrasal verbs in the lyrics of Charice Pempengco’s songs.




1.4.            Research Question


1.      What kind of phrasal verbs used in the lyrics of Charice Pempengco’s songs?


2.      What are transitive and intransitive phrasal verbs used in the lyrics of Charice Pempengco’s songs.


3.      What are the meaning of phrasal verbs found in the lyrics of Charice Pempengco’s songs?






1.5.            Purposes of Research


1.      To explain kind of phrasal verbs used in the lyrics of Charice Pempengco’s songs.


2.      To find out the transitive and intransitive phrasal verbs used in the lyrics of Charice Pempengco’s songs.


3.      To paraphrase the meaning of phrasal verbs in the lyrics of Charice Pempengco’s songs.




1.6.            Significance of Research


1.      Theoretically: this research is expected both to give additional knowledge of phrasal verbs in the lyrics of Charice Pempengco’s songs and to enrich the study of vocabulary in regard to learning English. In addition, this research is also become an additional information and reference for the upcoming researchers.


2.      Practically: this research can be very helpful for the readers who want to learn more about English phrasal verbs in the lyrics of Charice Pempengco’s songs. In other words, this research may be useful to attract students’ attention to use English phrasal verbs in their writing or daily conversation and to be more familiar in analyzing English phrasal verbs.




















2.1.            Language


Language is the most important aspect in the life of all beings. People use language to express the inner thoughts and emotions. Morris (1964, p. 28) clarifies, “Language is purely human and non – instinctive method  of communicating ideas, emotions, desires, by means of system of voluntarily produced symbol.” Montgomery and Sutherland (1962, p. 15) also explain, “Language may be described as a means of conveying something out that the user of the language wants to convey.” That means, something that somebody wants to convey can be not only transferred by sounds but also by gestures.


Language becomes a study which is called linguistics. Martinet (1987:19) says “Linguistics is a scientific study of human language.” The Free Encyclopedia also defines that linguistics focusses on the system of rules followed by the users of a language. Further, linguistics has three components of language. They are: morphology (the formation and composition of word), syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences from these words), and phonology (sound systems). (


Language is a tool of communication. “As a tool of communication, language is a system that is systematic and systemic as well. Systemic is that it is not only a single system, but also consists of several subsystems, namely: subsystem Phonology, subsystem Morphology, subsystem Syntax, and subsystem Semantics. The study of the subsystem is a branch of linguistics.”Chaer (2007, p. 4). 


2.2.            Grammar


Grammar is important for it is the language that makes it possible to talk about language. Merriam Webster Dictionary states, “Grammar is a system of rules that defines the grammatical structure of a language. In other words, grammar is the study of the classes of words, their inflections, and their functions and relations in the sentence.” (


Victorian (2008, p. 193) defines, “Grammar is the rules for forming words and making sentences. That means, either words or sentences which someone wants to convey cannot be easily understood without using grammar.




2.3.            Sentence


Faidal (2010, p. 221) clarifies:


 “Sentence is a set of words that have at least one subject and one predicate as well as containing a complete thought and meaning that can be clearly understood. The elements of sentence are as follows: (1). Subject is a word or a group of words which related to the sentence. This subject is usually, but not necessarily, placed at the beginning of the sentence. This subject includes: people, objects or animals. To know the subject of a sentence, we can ask questions such as who or what. (2). Predicate is word used to describe the state of the subject. In English, a sentence must have called the predicate verb. (3). Object is noun or pronoun that is subjected to predicate. Object in a sentence is necessary which aims to enhance the purpose of the verb. (4). Complement is a word or words that are used to complete the meaning of the verb in a sentence by showing the direct subject or object. (5). Adjunct is the words which are used to describe or to give information about object or subject in a sentence such as the description of the place, time, or cause.”








2.4.            Verb.


Faidal (2010, p. 87) explains “Verb is verbs used to show action or state of being of the subject. The kinds of verbs are finite verb and non – finite (infinite) verb. Finite verb is a verb which has the most important role in either the auxiliary verb or not auxiliary verb and acts as a full verb in the sentence. Infinite verb is an incomplete verb which functions as a part of another grammar of the verb.”


Dwi, (2003, p. 10) also gives a clarification about the verb, “Verb is the determinant of a sentence if the sentence is a statement, interrogative sentence, imperative sentences, or exclamation sentence. Verb is always synonymous with the verb predicate, because the predicate is often called a verb, but there is not a predicate verb in general. This verb is usually called an auxiliary verb or verb be. The meaning of verb be (generally it is called to be) is am, are and is. The past tense is was/were.”




2.5.            Phrasal Verb


The Free Website English Club defines, “Phrasal verbs are a really important part of the English language, especially for spoken English.” ( Syah (1977) states that a phrase is expressions called a set of words which contain units of meaning. Phrasal is an adjective of phrase. “Phrasal verb is verb combined with an adverb and or preposition to give new meaning.” Victorian (2008, p.329). It means that phrasal verb often has a meaning which is different from original verb.


According to Baehaqi (2009), There are three types of multi-word verbs as follows: (a) Prepositional verbs (verb + preposition), (b) Phrasal verbs (verb + adverb), and (c) Phrasal-prepositional verbs (verb + adverb + preposition).


2.5.1.      Prepositional Verbs (verb + preposition)


The Free Website English Club explains that prepositional Verbs are a group of multi-word verbs made from a verb plus another word or words. Because a preposition always has an object, all prepositional verbs have direct objects. That means, prepositional verbs are transitive. Victorian (2008, p. 473) says, “Transitive is a verb used with a direct object.”


Quirk (1973, p. 348) also explains “Many phrasal verbs can take a direct object as in instances: drink up your milk quickly, they gave in their resignation. Some combinations (drink up, gave in) can be either transitive or intransitive, with or without a difference of meaning. With most transitive phrasal verbs, the particle can either precede or follow the direct object: They turned on the light or they turned the light on. It cannot precede the personal pronouns: They turned it on and not they turned on it. As with the intransitives, transitive phrasal verbs vary in the extent to which they form idiomatic combinations.”


2.5.2.      Phrasal Verb (verb + adverb)


The Free Website English Club clarifies, “Phrasal verbs can be intransitive (no direct object) and transitive (direct object). When phrasal verbs are transitive (that is, they have a direct object), we can usually separate the two parts. However if the direct object is a pronoun, we have no choice. We must separate the phrasal verb and insert the pronoun between the two parts.”


“Intransitive is a verb used without an object.” Victorian (2008, p. 234). “One common type of multi – word verb is the intransitive phrasal verb consisting of a verb plus a particle. Phrasal verb varies in the extent to which the combination preserves the individual meanings of verb and particle. In instances like give in (‘surrender’), catch on (‘understand’) and turn up (‘appear’). It is clear that the meaning of the combination cannot be predicted from the meanings of the verb and particle in isolation.” Quirk (1973, p. 351).


2.5.3.      Phrasal – Prepositional Verb (verb + adverb + preposition)


Baehaqi (2009, p. 259) argues, “Phrasal-prepositional verb is a phrasal verb which consist of verb, adverb and preposition. This kind of phrasal verb can be followed or not by an object.” It means that phrasal-prepositional verbs may be both transitive and intransitive.


Quirk (1973, p. 353) explains:


“Like phrasal and prepositional verbs, these multi – word verbs vary in their idiomaticity. Some, like stay away from (‘avoid’) are easily understood from their individual elements, though often with figurative meaning, e.g. stand up for (‘support’). Others are fused combinations, and it is difficult or impossible to assign meaning to any of the parts, e.g. put up with (‘tolerate’). There are still others where there is a fusion of the verb with the first particle or where one or more of the elements may seem to retain some individual meaning. For example, put up with can also mean stay with.”


Based on the explanation above, it means that phrasal-prepositional verbs sometimes may have more than one meaning. Some can be either figurative or original meanings.




2.6.            Song


Yerkes (1989, p. 1357) says, “Song is a short material composition intended or adapted for singing or stimulating a piece to be sung.” Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia defines:


“In music, a song is a composition for voice or voices, performed by singing. A song may be for a solo singer, a duet, trio, or larger ensemble involving more voices. Songs can be broadly divided into many different forms, depending on the criteria used. One division is between Art Songs, Folk Songs, and Pop Songs. (1). Art songs are songs created for performance in their own right, usually with piano accompaniment, although they can also have other types of accompaniment such as an orchestra, or string quartet. And are always notated. (2). Folk Songs are songs of often anonymous origin or are public domain that are transmitted orally. (3). Songs that are popular may be called Pop Songs for short, although Pop Songs or Pop Music may instead be considered a more commercially popular genre of popular music as a whole.” (




2.7.            Lyrics


Manser, (1995) states that lyrics is the words of song. While Merriam –Webster’s Dictionary defines, “Lyrics is verse or poem that can, or supposedly can, be sung to musical accompaniment (in ancient times, usually a lyre) or that expresses intense personal emotion in a manner suggestive of a song.” (


Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia explains that Lyrics (in singular form lyric) are a set of words that make up a song usually consisting of versus and choruses. The writer of lyrics is a lyricist or lyrist. The meaning of lyrics can either be explicit or implicit. Some lyrics are abstract, almost incomprehensible and in such cases their explanation emphasizes form, articulation, meter, symmetry of expression. ( It means that lyrics relates to poetry and song. Both of them can express and portray the writers’ thoughts, feelings, state of minds, and perceptions.












3.1.            Research Design and Reasons


In completing this research, the researcher used qualitative research with library research. The reasons are:


1.      “The researcher is the main instrument.” Sugiono (2006).


2.      Qualitative research is descriptive which data are collected in words rather than in numbers.




3.2.            Setting and Time Schedule


The lyrics of Charice Pempengco’s songs were chosen by the researcher as the setting of this research.  This research might be done about three months. During this time, the researcher collected the data, identified and analyzed the English phrasal verbs in the lyrics of Charice Pempengco’s songs.




3.3.            Kinds and Sources Data


Primary and secondary data are the kinds of the data. The primary was taken directly from the source of Charice Pempengco’s song lyrics and as the additional data, secondary data was taken from books and related data from internet.






3.4.            Techniques of Data collection


In collecting the data, firstly the researcher searched and downloaded the lyrics of Charice Pempengco’s songs in the internet. Secondly, as the source of data, the researcher read the lyrics of Charice Pempengco’s songs. Thirdly, the researcher identified and analyzed the English phrasal verbs which were found in the lyrics of Charice Pempengco’s songs. Besides that the researcher went to library and took some materials related to the data.




3.5.            Data Analysis


The researcher used data analysis techniques from Miles and Huberman (Sugiono, 2006) which stated that there are three steps to analyze the data; the reduction, the display, and the verification. The data reduction is a process of selection to determine the focus, to simplify and to summarize the raw data into more specific areas. Data display; the whole data will be displayed after being reduced in the form of a brief description. Data verification is all specific data which have already been displayed and reduced. Moreover, the researcher drew conclusion of all the data which have been found through the research.














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